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Table 2 Comparison of estern Atlantic and Mediterranean species of Pagellus species and Pagrus pagrus. According to (Whitehead et al. 1986; Carpenter and De Angelis 2016)

From: First confirmed record of Sparid Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich, 1768) in the Syrian marine waters (Levantine Basin)

DescriptionPagellus bogaraveoPagellus erythrinusPagellus acarnePagellus billottiiPagrus pagrus
BodyOblongOval and compressedfusiformOblong and compressedOval moderately deep.
upper profile of headcurvedstraightdepressed above eyes
Head profilerounded, snout short;straightdepressed above eye, snout conical; interorbital space flatslightly, but regularly convex, becoming steeper from the nape downward in adults,convex, slightly steeper in front of eye
Eye diametergreater than snout lengthsmaller than snout lengthsmaller than snout length
Scalation on top of head endingbehind a transverse line through middle of eyesin front of a transverse line through middle of eyebehind a transverse line through middle of eyesin front of a transverse line through middle of eye
Scale on cheekscheeks scalycheeks scalycheeks scalycheeks scaly6 or 7 rows of scales on cheeks
mouthmouth low, nearly horizontalmouth low, slightly oblique; lips thickmouth low, nearly horizontal; lips thickmouth low, small, slightly oblique
Lateral teethmolariformmolars in 2 or 3 rows in upper and 2 rows in lower jaw;molariformmolars arranged in 2 rowsMolariform
Anterior teeth in each jawpointed teeth; followed by numerous sligthly smaller, cardiform teethpointed teeth; followed by numerous sligthly smaller, cardiform teethpointed teeth; followed by numerous sligthly smaller, cardiform teethpointed teeth; followed by numerous sligthly smaller, cardiform teethIn front of jaws 4 upper and 6 lower stronger canines-like teeth; at back, smaller and obtuse canines
Gillrakers18–19 lower,
11–13 upper.
8–10 lower, 5–6 upper.13–16 lower, 9–12 upper.9–10 lower, 5–6 upper.8–10 lower, 6–8 upper.
Dorsal fin raysXII, XIII + 11–13XII + 10–11XII. XIII + 12–13XII + 11–12XII + 9–10
Anal fin raysIII + 11, 12III + 8, 9III + 9, 10III + 10III + 8, 9
lateral line Scales68–7455–6565–7254–6052–60
Colour of bodya more or less reddish grey,a moderately bright pink marked with small blue spots on sidesgreyish pink, darker on backmore or less bright red with silvery reflections; often blue spots following scale rows on sides: pink with silvery reflections
Colour of headdarker on headhead darker, especially between eyes and on snout profilehead darker, particularly between eyeshead dark
from nape to angle of mouth
Colour of bellylighter on belly;lighter on bellylighter on belly
interior of mouthorange redwhitish or greyishorange-redwhitish or greyish
Characteristic coloura large black blotch at origin of lateral lineposterior dorsal margin of opercle crimson red; a reddish spot on bases of pectoral fins;a reddish black spot at pectoral fin axilsdark red spot at origin of lateral line and along upper margin of opercle;caudal fin dark pink, with both tips white