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Table 1 The SACFOR abundance scales for cover and counts observations (Hiscock, 1990). SACFOR codes are: S Superabundant, A Abundant, C Common, F Frequent, O Occasional, R Rare, and L Less than rare indicated by extrapolation (which is no longer used in the modern SACFOR scale)

From: Converting SACFOR data for statistical analysis: validation, demonstration and further possibilities

SACFOR cover scaleSACFOR counts scale
Percentage coverGrowth formCounts (various spatial unit)Minimum density at 1000 m2Size of individuals or colonies
Crust/MeadowMassive/Turf< 1 cm1–3 cm3–15 cm> 15 cm
>  80%S >  1 / 0.001 m2 (1 × 1 cm)10,000,000S   
40–79%AS1–9 / 0.001 m21,000,000AS  
20–39%CA1–9 / 0.01 m2 (10 × 10 cm)100,000CAS 
10–19%FC1–9 / 0.1 m210,000FCAS
5–9%OF1–9 / m21000OFCA
1–5%RO1–9 / 10 m2 (3.16 × 3.16 m)100ROFC
<  1%LR1–9 / 100 m2 (10 × 10 m)10LROF
  L1–9 / 1000 m2 (31.6 × 31.6 m)1 LRO
   < 1 / 1000 m2 (100 × 100 m)0.1  LR
   < 1 / 10,000 m2 (1 km2)0.01   L
Example taxaHalichondriaPachymatisma  SpirorbisGrantiaChaetopterusEunicella
CorynactisAlcyonium  NuculaNephtysArenicolaFuniculina
FucoidsFoliose algae  AmphipodsPomatocerosSabellaPachycerianthus
Kelp     ZosteraNephrops