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Table 2 Main morphological differences between Mulinia lateralis, Mactra stultorum and Spisula subtruncata

From: First records of the dwarf surf clam Mulinia lateralis (Say, 1822) in Europe

  Mulinia lateralis Mactra stultorum Spisula subtruncata
Shell outline triangular oval triangular
Radial ridge along posterior end of valves distinct absent absent
Ligament exclusively internal external ligament present external ligament present
Accessory lamella (between chondrophore and two fused cardinal teeth) well developed very weak very weak
Shell colour whitish to cream with thin, yellowish periostracum creamy white with purple hue around umbos and brown radiating rays dirty white with brown periostracum
Shell surface smooth with very fine concentric growth lines smooth distinct concentric grooves along dorsal line on either side of umbos
Shell convexity distinctly convex valves moderately convex variable, with distinctly convex and less convex forms (van Urk 1959)
Cardinal area between beaks broad in large specimens narrow in large specimens narrow in large specimens