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Table 1 Summary of observed anomalies in the genus Gymnura. Realm as defined by Spalding et al. (2007)

From: Morphological and functional abnormality in the spiny butterfly ray Gymnura altavela

Species Anomaly description Disc width (cm) Depth (m) Sex Number of cases Realm Study
Gymnura micrura Dorsal fold on the tail 17.8–21.7 8–25 - 2 Tropical Atlantic Nunes & Piorski (2009)
Gymnura poecilura Unfused anterior part of both pectoral fins to the neurocranium 15.2 - - 1 Western Indo-Pacific Day (1878)
Gymnura poecilura Unfused anterior part of both pectoral fins to the neurocranium 8.9 - - 1 Western Indo-Pacific Bennet (1964)
Gymnura poecilura Unfused anterior part of both pectoral fins to the neurocranium 22.5 8–18 Male 1 Western Indo-Pacific Easwaran (1967)
Gymnura poecilura Unfused anterior part of the right pectoral fin to the neurocranium 47.5 Coastal Female 1 Western Indo-Pacific Suresh & Raffi (2012)
Gymnura altavela Unfused anterior part of the right pectoral fin to the neurocranium 137 8–13 Female 1 Temperate Northern Atlantic The present study