Distribution and species richness of caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from the Mexican Pacific
- Lucy Coral Alarcón-Ortega†1,
- Amílcar Leví Cupul-Magaña1Email author,
- Alma Paola Rodríguez-Troncoso†1 and
- Fabio Germán Cupul-Magaña1
© The Author(s) 2017
Received: 31 December 2016
Accepted: 11 March 2017
Published: 22 March 2017
The caprellid fauna from different localities along the Mexican Pacific coast: Sinaloa (3), Nayarit (15), Jalisco (9) and Colima (1) are presented herein.
A total of 1,093 specimens associated with diverse substrates (octocorals, hydroids, algae, coral rubble and sponge) were recorded.
Eight species in four genera were identified: Aciconula acanthosoma Chess 1989; Caprella mendax Mayer 1903; Caprella pitu Sánchez-Moyano, García-Ascencio and Guerra-García 2014; Caprella suprapiscis Galván-Villa and Ayón-Parente 2015; Paracaprella carballoi Sánchez-Moyano, García-Ascencio and Guerra-García 2014; Paracaprella isabelae Sánchez-Moyano, García-Ascencio and Guerra-García 2014; Paracaprella pusilla Mayer 1890; and Liropus isabelensis Sánchez-Moyano, García-Ascencio and Guerra-García 2014.
The new records increase the known species richness in the region at local level, including extensions of the known ranges for all the species. These results highlight the need for a large scale survey along the Mexican Pacific coast, along with a more thorough sampling on a large number of substrata, in order to increase the knowledge of caprellid diversity in the area.
KeywordsRichness Range extension Distribution Eastern Tropical Pacific Skeleton shrimp
Caprellids are small crustaceans commonly known as “skeleton shrimps”, which are abundant and important members of the marine benthos, inhabiting a wide variety of substrates (e.g., bryozoans, macroalgae and sponge) as epibionts, with a high preference for hydroids and gorgonians in tropical regions (McCain, 1968; Guerra-García, 2006; Scinto et al., 2008; Alarcón-Ortega et al., 2012; Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014; Soler-Hurtado and Guerra-García, 2016). They are also part of fouling communities (Thiel et al., 2003; Ros and Guerra-García, 2012; Alarcón-Ortega et al., 2015), and their distribution varies from intertidal to abyssal zones (Laubitz and Mills, 1972; Woods, 2009). They are fundamental in marine ecosystems as recyclers of organic matter and as an energy source at different trophic levels (Caine, 1989; Woods, 2009).
The caprellids from the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) have been little studied. To date in this region a total of 16 species has been recorded: Aciconula acanthosoma Chess, 1989 from Mexico and Ecuador; Abbysicaprella galatheae McCain, 1966 from Costa Rica and Peru; Caprella ungulina Mayer, 1903 from Ecuador; C. californica Stimpson, 1856 from Mexico; C. equilibra Lamark, 1881 from Mexico, Panama and Ecuador; C. scaura Templeton, 1836 from Mexico and Costa Rica; C. mendax Mayer, 1903 from Mexico; Paracaprella banardi McCain, 1967 from Panama and P. pusilla Mayer, 1890 from Mexico and Panama (Mayer, 1903; Shoemaker, 1942; McCain, 1966; McCain, 1967; McCain and Steinberg, 1970; Laubitz, 1970; Alarcón-Ortega et al., 2012; Ros et al., 2014; Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014; Soler-Hurtado and Guerra-García, 2016), plus recent descriptions, all from Mexico: C. calderoni Hendrickx and Ayón-Parente, 2014; C. mercedesae Hendrickx and Ayón-Parente, 2014; C.pitu Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014; C. suprapiscis Galván-Villa and Ayón-Parente, 2015; Liropus isabelensis Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014; P. carballoi Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014 and P. isabelae Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014 (Hendrickx and Ayón-Parente, 2014; Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014; Galván-Villa and Ayón-Parente, 2015).
Despite the relevance of the distribution and richness of caprellid amphipods from the Mexican Pacific (MP) in particular Central Mexican Pacific (CMP) is almost unstudied and more information is required to fill the information gap. However, there are a few studies relating with the caprellid biota: Alarcón-Ortega et al. (2012) report for the first time a total of four species at six stations during 2011-2012 (A. acanthosoma, C. equilibra, C. aff. penantis and Paracaprella sp.) and describe the feeding habitats of caprellids in this area; Sánchez-Moyano et al. (2014) report three new records and four new species (A. acanthosoma, C. equilibra, C. mendax, C. pitu, P. carballoi, P. isabelae, L. isabelensis) from 10 stations during two expedition in 2002 and 2008; Alarcón-Ortega et al. (2015) report the presence of one non-indigenous species from four stations between 2013-2014; Galván-Villa and Ayón-Parente (2015) describe a new species, C. suprapiscis, associated with scorpionfish. At this point, the caprellid studies have only been focused at the small-scale level during short and sporadic surveys, generating a little information about caprellid species and their distribution. Therefore the aim of the present study was to update the information on the biodiversity of caprellids in the MP, performing a large latitudinal survey from 19°06′17″ N to 25°26′09″ N along the Central Mexican coast (843 km) and surrounding islands (20.68 km-2), including range extensions and ecological data of four genera and eight caprellid species in order to broaden the records of the distribution of these amphipods in the ETP. These findings are important in documenting the extensions of the known ranges of the species, but also increase knowledge of the biodiversity of the entire region.
Material and methods
The Central Mexican Pacific is considered as a transitional oceanographic area, and is seasonally influenced by three important current systems: the California Current carrying cold (~18 °C), low-salinity and high-nutrient water (Kessler, 2006; Pennington et al., 2006; Pantoja et al., 2012); the Gulf of California Current carrying warm waters with high salinity; and the Mexican Coastal Current carrying warm (~30 °C), clear and low-nutrient water (Wyrtki, 1965; da Silva et al., 1994; Palacios-Hernández et al., 2010; Pantoja et al., 2012). These oceanographic conditions drive an inter-annual variability of environmental conditions, which may allow the presence of different species within the area.
Locality and geographic coordinates of the sampling sites in the Mexican Pacific
Cueva del Lobo
25°26′07.70″ N; 109°22′39.95″ W
25°26′09.51″ N; 109°22′29.88″ W
23°10′51.76″ N; 106°25′14.52″ W
21°18′1.78″ N; 106°13′36.39″ W
21°18′1.93″ N; 106°13′37.16″ W
21°17′54.1″ N; 106°13′27.4″ W
21°50′ 32.27″ N; 105°53′02.95″ W
Muelle San Blas
21°32′38.72″ N; 105°17′32.70″ W
20°44′54.7″ N; 105°51′26.1″ W
Cueva del Muerto
20°41′50.6″ N; 105° 34′58.1″ W
Zona de Restauración Sur
20° 41′54.1″ N; 105° 34′58.1″ W
Zona de Restauración
20° 41′ 57.0″ N; 105° 34′55.6″ W
20° 41′58.1″ N; 105° 33′57.1″ W
20° 42′ 50.2″ N; 105° 33′54.0″ W
Playa del Amor
20° 42′ 14.1″ N; 105° 33′50.1″ W
Punta de Mita
Punta de Mita
20°46′12.33″ N; 105°32′28.60″ W
Bajo de las Viudas
La Cruz de Huanacaxtle
20°43′58.38″ N; 105°23′32.64″ W
20°41′31.83″ N; 105°17′36.07″ W
20°32′39.10″ N; 105°17′33.71″ W
20°31′56.04″ N; 105°17′37.68″ W
20°30′44.37″ N; 105°19′33.61″W
20°26′15.28″ N; 105°39′15.28″ W
19°18′35.92″ N; 104°57′19.41″ W
19°13′12.90″ N; 104°43′28.02″ W
19°13′52.50″ N; 104°45′21.34″ W
19°13′45.33″ N; 104°43′59.18″ W
19°06′17.56″ N; 104°23′53.58″ W
A total of eight species of caprellids were documented.
Family Caprellidae Leach, 1814
Subfamily Caprellinae Leach, 1814
Genus Aciconula Mayer, 1903
Aciconula acanthosoma Chess, 1989
Type locality: Santa Catalina Island, California
Distribution: USA: Santa Catalina Island, California (Chess, 1989). Mexico: Isla de los Pájaros and Isla Venado, Mazatlán, Sinaloa; Bahía Tiburón, Cerro Pelón and las Monas, Isla Isabel, Nayarit (Alarcón-Ortega et al., 2012; Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014). Ecuador: Machalilla National Park, Manabí (Soler-Hurtado and Guerra-García, 2016).
Diagnosis: Body length range 2.73–6.42 mm for males, and 2.6–4.86 mm for females. Body dorsally covered with acute spines. Head provided with four curved spines. Basis of gnathopod 2 provided with acute lateral projection. Gnathopod 2, palmar surface of propodus fitted with two distal triangular projections and mid excavation bordered proximally by strong spine, proximal surface with row of fine blunt serrations and single grasping spine. Pereopods 3 and 4 reduced with two articles. Pereopod 5 lacking grasping structures (typical of genus) (Chess, 1989).
Ecology: Aciconula acanthosoma was present on coral rubble, hydroids, macroalgae, gorgonians and sponge being more abundant in turf, whilst Sánchez-Moyano et al. (2014) reported specimens were more abundant in sessile organisms (hydroids, gorgonians and bryozoans). The body is generally brown and covered with detritus mainly pereonite 5, and animals were observed feeding on this detritus with their first gnathopods. The principal dietary component of A. acanthosoma from the study area is mainly detritus, crustaceans and hydroids (Alarcón-Ortega et al., 2012). A. acanthosoma also is a dietary component of many fish species from the families Cottidae, Embiotocidae, Pomacentridae, Labridae, Labrisomidae, and Gobiidae (Chess, 1989). The species’ abundance underwent seasonal variations, with higher numbers observed during the winter season, a similar pattern as reported by Chess (1989) and Soler-Hurtado and Guerra-García (2016).
Caprella mendax Mayer, 1903
Type locality: California (the type locality was not specified, but the species was collected in Pacific Grove, Santa Barbara and San Diego).
Distribution: Canada: Vancouver Island and Strait of Hécate, British Columbia; San Juan Island, Washington (Laubitz, 1970; Caine, 1977), Humboldt Bay (Martin, 1977). USA: Dillon Beach, Moss Beach and Pacific Grove-Monterrey Bay, California (Dougherty and Steinberg, 1953); Santa Barbara, San Diego, California (Laubitz, 1970). Mexico: Isla de los Pájaros, Isla Venado and Estero de Urías in Mazatlán, Sinaloa (Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014).
Diagnosis: Body length range 5.40–18.82 mm for males, 2.72–11.62 mm for females. Head without projections, body smooth with a small projection at the base of the second gnathopods. Antenna 1 longer than the pereonite 1, 2 and 3 combined with 16 articles in flagellum. Antenna 2 with abundant swimming setae. Ventral spine between the bases of Gnathopod 2 absent. Gnathopod 2, propodus with a proximal grasping spine with a small accessory spine and triangular projection distally. Basis of gnathopod 2 with an anterior denticulate carina. Gills present on pereonite 3 and 4, elliptical. Pereopods 5, 6 and 7 increasing in length, with propodus with proximal grasping spines and concave palm (Laubitz, 1970; Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014).
Ecology: Caprella mendax has been collected from many substrates such as kelp forest, sand, boulders and hydroids from the intertidal zone to 80 m deep (Caine, 1977; Martin, 1977; Hammer and Zimmerman, 1979). C. mendax was the most abundant species collected in the study area, presenting high densities (7,297 ind.m-2) on the hydroid L. nuttingi in the cold season, moreover, this species has been observed on seaweeds with epiphytic hydroids and on gorgonians (Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014).
Caprella pitu Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014
Caprella pitu Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014: 17–26, figs. 9–14.
Type locality: Isla de los Pájaros, Mazatlán, Mexico (Fig. 4).
Distribution: Mexico: Isla de los Pájaros and Isla Venado, Mazatlán, Sinaloa; Las Monas in Isla Isabel and Islas Marietas, Nayarit; Los Arcos, Jalisco (Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014).
Diagnosis: Body length range 3.07–5.52 mm for males and 2.03–3.978 mm for females. Head provided with a short, triangular projection. Body stout and wide with tiny tubercles; in dorsal view, body wide, with lateral and flat expansion mainly in pereonites 3 and 4. Peduncle of antenna 1 scarcely setose. Gnathopod 2 basis short with an anterior carina; palm of propodus with an acute projection medially and a rounded distal one. Pereiopods 3 and 4 absent. Gills rounded. Pereiopods 5–7 robust and increasing in length; carpus elongate and palm of propodus without grasping spines; dactylus short and robust (Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014).
Ecology: Caprella pitu has been found on different species of gorgonians (Leptogorgia sp., L. rigida, L. peruviana, L. alba, Pacifigorgia sp. and P. cf. agassizzi), and was abundant in L. rigida between 2–25 m depth in coral reef areas (Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014, present study). Moreover, C. pitu, shared its habitat with numerous brittle stars [Ophiactis simplex, Ophiothela mirabilis, Ophiothrix (Ophiothrix) spiculata, O. (Ophiothrix) rudis], mainly in BV. This species shows body pigmentation related to the coloration of the substrate they are sheltering in (clear with pink spots, purple or dark brown with yellow spots), possibly to avoid detection by predators.
Caprella suprapiscis Galván-Villa and Ayón-Parente, 2015
Caprella suprapiscis Galván-Villa and Ayón-Parente, 2015: 572–576, figs. 2–6.
Type locality: Isla Cocinas, Bahía Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico (Fig. 5).
Distribution: Mexico: Isla Cocinas, Isla Pajarera, Isla Colorada, and San Agustín in Bahía de Chamela, Jalisco (Galván-Villa and Ayón-Parente, 2015).
Diagnosis: Body length between 4.04–9.95 mm for males, 4.08–6.65 mm for females. Body slender and smooth except for the dorsal cephalic projection. Antenna 1 about half of the body length, peduncle scarcely setose. Propodus of gnathopod 2 elongate, length about 3 times width, dorsal surface slightly convex, dorsal and ventral margins finely setose, with one proximal projection provided with a robust seta 2/5 from proximal end of ventral margin palm; another projection in the middle, followed by “U” notch distally; dactylus falcate, setose on dorsal and lateral margins. Pereopods 3 and 4 absent, 5–7 increasing in length, scarcely setose (Galván-Villa and Ayón-Parente, 2015).
Ecology: Caprella suprapiscis has been reported living on the body of the fish Scorpaena mystes, associated with coral and rocky reefs between 5–7 m depth (Galván-Villa and Ayón-Parente, 2015). In the study area C. suprapiscis was found only on the octocoral Leptogorgia alba, sharing habitat with numerous brittle stars such as O. (Ophiothrix) spiculata, O. simplex, O. (Ophiothrix) rudis and O. mirabilis and also others caprellids (C. mendax, A. acanthosoma and P. isabelae), isopods and gastropods at 4.5–11 m depth. The body color differs according to the substrate (Galván-Villa and Ayón-Parente, 2015); in the area, C. suprapiscis body pigmentation was clear with pink spots.
Genus Liropus Mayer, 1890
Liropus isabelensis Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014
Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014: 26–32, figs. 15–18.
Type locality: Cerro Pelón, Isla Isabel, Nayarit, Mexico (Fig. 6).
Distribution: Mexico: Isla de los Pajáros, Mazatlán, Sinaloa; Bahía Tiburón, Isla Isabel, Nayarit.
Diagnosis: Body length range 1.94–2.27 mm for males, and 1.48–1.98 mm for females. Head rounded without projections; eyes present. Body dorsally smooth. Anterolateral acute and downward-directed projections on pereonite 2 and mediolateral projections on pereonite 3 in males. Flagellum of antenna 1 five-articulate. Gnathopod 2 basis slightly longer than pereonite 2; ischium and propodus elongate. Pereopods 3, 4 and 5 one-articulate. Abdomen without appendages in males (Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014).
Ecology: Liropus isabelensis has been found on hydroids, gorgonians, bryozoans and seaweed with epiphytic hydroids (Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014). This species was abundant mainly on coral rubble Pocillopora spp. and calcareous macroalgae H. discoidea but was also collected in turf and sponge, mainly associated with shallow water in coral reef ecosystems.
Genus Paracaprella Mayer, 1890
Paracaprella carballoi Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014
Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014: 32–39, figs. 19–22.
Type locality: Isla de los Pájaros, Mazatlán, Mexico (Fig. 7).
Distribution: Only known from type locality.
Diagnosis: Body length range 2.53–4.31 mm for males, and 2.24–3.19 mm for females. Head rounded. Body dorsally smooth, except pereonite 2 with a rounded and narrow anterolateral projection (only in males). Flagellum of antenna 1 nine-articulate; peduncle scarcely setose. Antenna 2 a little shorter than the peduncle of antenna 1, swimming setae absent. Basis of gnathopod 2 with two distal short processes on lateral margin. Propodus of gnathopod 2 palm with rectangular projection proximally, carrying two proximal grasping spines and a distal robust tooth. Pereopods 3 and 4 two-articulate. Pereopods 5–7 without grasping spines. Abdomen with a pair of setose uni-articulate appendages (Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014).
Ecology: A few specimens of P. carballoi were collected on algae Padina sp. and H. discoidea associated with coral reef ecosystems in two stations (ZR and ZRS) of this study. Moreover, the species has been found on octocorals Leptogorgia rigida and on seaweed Zoonaria cf. farlowii with small hydroids (Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014).
Paracaprella isabelae Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014
Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014: 39–48, figs. 23–26.
Type locality: Las Monas, Isla Isabel, Nayarit, Mexico (Fig. 8).
Distribution: Mexico: Cerro Pelón and Bahía Tiburón, Isla Isabel, Nayarit.
Diagnosis: Body length range 3.08–7.86 mm for males, and 2.31–5.15 mm for females. Head rounded and dorsally humped. Large bifid sharp-pointed anterolateral projection on anterior margin of pereonite 2 in males, simple and rounded in females. Pereonite 3 with a rounded anterolateral projection in males. Short ventral forward-directed projection between the gnathopods 2. Propodus palm of gnathopod 2 with rectangular projection proximally, bearing one proximal grasping spine and a distal long robust tooth in males. Pereopods 3 and 4 two-articulate. Pereopods 5–7 without grasping spines. Abdomen with a pair of setose uni-aticulate appendages in male (Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014).
Ecology: Paracaprella isabelae does not present specific substrate preferences because the species was collected from different substrates such as hydroids, bryozoans (Bugula sp.), sponge, fishing net, turf, algae (H. discoidea and Padina sp.), gorgonians (Leptogorgia spp. and M. austera) and coral rubble (Pocillopora spp.), distributed on a depth range of 2–25 m depth, a similar pattern to that reported by Sánchez-Moyano et al. (2014). The feeding behavior of this genus is mainly scraping and predation, eating detritus and crustaceans, grasping inorganic materials from the substrata (Caine, 1974; Alarcón-Ortega et al., 2012).
Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1890
Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1903: 41, pl. 1, figs. 28–30; pl. 2 36, 37; figs. pl. 3, figs. 45–47; pl. 5; figs. 48,49; pl. 6, fig. 10; 1903: 67; pl. 7, fig. 52. Edmonson and Mansfield 1948: 208–2010, fig. 4. Steinberg and Dougherty, 1957: 283–284, figs. 16, 19, 24, 30. McCain, 1968: 82–86, figs. 41–42. Serejo, 1998: 381, fig. 7j, l. Ortiz et al. 2002: fig. 37. Foster 2004: 165, fig. 5a–f. Díaz et al., 2005: 3, 6–7, fig. 13. Guerra-García et al. 2006: 175–178, figs. 17–19. Krapp-Schickel et al. 2006: 175–178, figs 17–19. Escobar-Briones et al. 2007: 30, 47, 49, fig. 16. Bhave and Deshmukh, 2009: 112, figs. 1–2. Guerra-García et al. 2010: 304–305, fig. 8. Ros et al. 2013: 71, fig. 2. Alarcón-Ortega et al., 2015: 213, fig. 2.
Caprella nigra Reid 1951: 283–284, 289, fig. 58.
Type locality: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Fig. 9).
Diagnosis: Head without projections; smooth body with a large anterolateral projection on pereonite 2; presence of a small dorsal tubercle on pereonite 2. Peduncle of antenna 1 setose and usually longer than antenna 2. Antenna 2 without swimming setae but densely setose. Propodus of gnathopod 1 with one proximal grasping spine; basis of gnathopod 2 with a proximal knob and propodus with trapezoidal projection on the inner margin.
Ecology: Paracaprella pusilla has been collected from mangrove roots, seagrasses, hydroids, ascidians, bryozoans, sponge, gravel bottoms, ropes, mussels and oysters mainly associated with fouling communities such as docks, floating pontoon, ballast water (McCain, 1968; Caine, 1978; Díaz et al., 2005; Bhave and Deshmukh, 2009; Ros et al., 2014; Alarcón-Ortega et al., 2015). The feeding strategy of P. pusilla is a carnivorous one, and its diet consists mainly of crustaceans, detritus and hydroids; moreover, its feeding strategies may change between natural and artificial habitats (Ros et al., 2014).
Extension of known ranges (Km) of caprellid species from the Mexican Pacific
Isla de los Pájaros to El Farallón
~384.02 Km N
Isla Isabel to Mismaloya
Esteró Urías to La Boquita
~500.30 Km S
Los Arcos to Laboratorio 1
~156.56 Km S
Isla Cocinas to Bajo de las Viudas
~92.47 Km N
Isla Isabel to Islas Marietas
~131.10 Km S
Isla de los Pájaros to Islas Marietas
~298.78 Km S
Isla Isabel to La Boquita
~341.80 Km S
The Panama Canal to Mazatlán
~3272.77 Km N
At the species level, we highlight the invasive species Paracaprella pusilla which presents a notably isjunct distribution in the northern tropical east Pacific (Fig. 9; Table 2). The vector of introduction of this species in the area is still unknown (Ros et al., 2014). Documenting the extent of invasive non-native species is important because they may constitute threats to the local native fauna. We also highlight the substantial southward extension of C. mendax, which has been previously reported in Mexico only from Mazatlán, Sinaloa. Other important records relate to A. acanthosoma, which seems to have wide distribution throughout the Southern California to the Tropical East Pacific (Chess 1987; Alarcón-Ortega et al., 2012; Sánchez-Moyano et al., 2014; Soler-Hurtado and Guerra-García, 2016). C. suprapiscis (Isla Cocinas, Jalisco) and P. carballoi (Isla de los Pájaros, Sinaloa) were previously only recorded from their type localities associated with coral communities; the records presented here expand their known distributions northward and southward, respectively (Figs. 5 and 7; Table 2). It is possible that these species present strong affinities to coral communities. The results of this study highlight the importance of reef ecosystems for caprellid diversity, potentially due to the provision of numerous microhabitats (including hydroids, algae, octocorals and coral rubble) which may promote species diversity (Guerra-García, 2006; Kramer et al., 2014). At this point, the caprellid biota is commonly distributed along the Mexican coast and probably the distributions of the species recorded may extend beyond this area. Therefore, an intensive sampling effort in a wide variety of substrates and habitats along the entire ETP is recommended in order to determine species richness, diversity and potential caprellid community distribution zones over the Pacific Ocean.
Adolfo Tortolero Langarica
Bajo de las Viudas
Cueva del Lobo
Cueva del Muerto
Central Mexican Pacific
Eastern Tropical Pacific
Lucy Coral Alarcón Ortega
Muelle San Blas
Playa del Amor
Punta de Mita
Rosa Sotelo Casas
Zona de Restauración
Zona de Restauración Sur
LCAO work was supported by the doctoral fellowship CONACYT N°. 323997. The authors thank the authorities from the Islas Marietas National Park and Isla Isabel (CONANP) for assistance and use of facilities during the sampling periods. Also we would like to give thanks to Dr. Alan Zavala Norzagaray from the Instituto Politécnico Nacional-CIIDIR Sinaloa, Mexico, and also to Protección y Restauración de Islas y Zonas Naturales (PROZONA A.C.).
The present work was supported by the Project P/PIFI-2010-14MSU0010Z-10 to ALCM and the Project PROMEP 220265 to APRT.
Availability of data and materials
All data associated with these publications are contained herein; the specimens were deposited in the Laboratorio de Ecología Marina del Centro de Investigaciones Costeras, Centro Universitario de la Costa, Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico and Regional Collection of Marine Invertebrates (ICML-EMU) at the Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, UNAM, in Mazatlán, México.
All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing of interest.
Consent for publication
The authors freely consent to the publication of this paper.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Alarcón-Ortega LC, Guerra-García JM, Sánchez-Moyano JE, Cupul-Magaña FC. Feeding habits of caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from the west coast of Mexico. Do they feed on their hosting substrates? Zool Baetica. 2012;23:11–20.Google Scholar
- Alarcón-Ortega LC, Rodríguez-Troncoso AP, Cupul-Magaña AL. First record of non-indigenous Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1890 (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in the Northern Tropical East Pacific. BioInvasion Records. 2015;4(3):211–5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bhave VJ, Deshmukh VD. A record of skeleton shrimp Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1890 from Mumbai waters. J Mar Biol Ass India. 2009;51:111–3.Google Scholar
- Caine EA. Comparative functional morphology of feeding in three species of caprellids (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from the Northwestern Florida Gulf coast. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol. 1974;15:81–96.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Caine EA. Feeding mechanisms and possible resource partition of the Caprellidae (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from Puget Sound, USA. Mar Biol. 1977;42:331–6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Caine EA. Habitat adaptations of North American caprellid Amphipoda (Crustacea). Biol Bull. 1978;155:288–96.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Caine EA. Caprellid amphipod behavior and predatory strikes by fish. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol. 1989;126:173–80.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chess JR. Aciconula acanthosoma, new species, a caprellid amphipod from southern California, with notes on its ecology. J Crustacean Biol. 1989;94(4):662–5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- da Silva AM, Young CC, Levitus S. Atlas of Surface Marine Data 1994. In: Anomalies of Fresh Water Fluxes, vol. 4. NOAA Atlas NESDIS; 1994. p. 9–308
- Díaz YJ, Guerra-García JM, Martín A. Caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidae) from shallow waters of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela. Org Divers Evol. 2005;10:1–25.Google Scholar
- Dougherty EC, Steinberg J. Notes on the skeleton shrimps (Crustacea: Caprellidae) of California. Proc Biol Soc Wash. 1953;66:39–50.Google Scholar
- Galván-Villa CM, Ayón-Parente M. Caprella suprapiscis sp. nov. (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidae) from the Pacific coast of Mexico. Zootaxa. 2015;3956(4):569–78.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Guerra-García JM. Caprellidae (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from the Great Barrier Reef and Adjacent Localities. Rec Aust Mus. 2006;58:417–58.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hammer RM, Zimmerman RC. Species of demersal zooplankton inhabiting a kelp forest ecosystem off Santa Catalina Island, California. Bull South Calif Acad Sci. 1979;78:199–206.Google Scholar
- Hendrickx ME, Ayón-Parente M. Two new species of deep-water Caprella (Peracarida, Amphipoda, Caprellidae) from the Pacific coast of Mexico collected during the Talud XIV cruise, with a checklist of species of caprellidae recorder for the Eastern Pacific. Crustaceana. 2014;87(1):41–63.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kessler WS. The circulation of the Eastern tropical Pacific: a review. Prog Oceanogr. 2006;69:181–217.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kramer MJ, Bellwood DR, Bellwood O. Benthic Crustacea on coral reefs: a quantitative survey. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 2014;511:105–16.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Laubitz DR. Studies on the Caprellidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda) of the American North Pacific. Natl Mus Nat Sci. 1970;1:1–89. Ottawa, Pub Biol Oceanogr.Google Scholar
- Laubitz DR, Mills EL. Deep-sea Amphipoda from the western North Atlantic Ocean. Caprellidea. Can J Zool. 1972;50(4):371–83.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Martin DM. A survey of the family Caprellidae (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from selected sites along the norhern California coast. Bull S Calif Acad Sci. 1977;76:146–67.Google Scholar
- Mayer P. Die Caprellidae der Simboga-Expeditie. Simboga Expeditie. 1903;34:160.Google Scholar
- McCain JC. Abyssicaprella galatheae, a new genus and species of abyssal caprellid (Amphipoda: Caprellidae). Galathea Rep. 1966;8:91–4.Google Scholar
- McCain JC. Paracaprella barnardi, a new species of caprellid (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Proc Biol Soc Wash. 1967;80:219–22.Google Scholar
- McCain JC. The Caprellidea (Crustacea: Amphipoda) of the Western North Atlantic. US Natl Mus Bull. 1968;278:1–147. Washington, DC.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- McCain JC, Steinberg JE. Amphipoda I. Caprellidae I. Fam. Caprellidae. In: Gruner HE, Holthuis LB, editors. Crustaceorum catalogus, Part 2. 1970. p. 1–78.Google Scholar
- Myers AA, Lowry JK. A phylogeny and a new classifications of the Corophiidea Leach, 1814 (Amphipoda). J Crustacean Biol. 2003;23(2):443–85.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Palacios-Hernández E, Carrillo LE, Filonov A, Brito-Castillo L, CabreraRamos CE. Seasonality and anomalies of surface temperature off the coast of Nayarit, Mexico. Ocean Dynam. 2010;60:81–91.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pantoja DA, Marinone SG, Parés-Sierra A, Gómez-Valdivia F. Numerical modeling of seasonal and mesoscale hydrography and circulation in the Mexican Central Pacific. Cienc Mar. 2012;38:363–79.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pennington JT, Mahoney KL, Kuwahara VS, Kolber DD, Calienes R, Chávez FP. Primary production in the Eastern Tropical Pacific: a review. Prog Oceanogr. 2006;69:285–317.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ros M, Ashton GV, Lacerda MB, Carlton JT, Vázquez-Luis M, Guerra-García JM, Ruiz GM. The Panama Canal and the transoceanic dispersal of marine invertebrates: Evalution of the introduced amphipod Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1890 in the Pacific Ocean. Mar Environ Res. 2014;99:204–11.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ros M, Guerra-García JM. On the occurrence of the tropical caprellid Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1890 (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in Europe. Mediterr Mar Sci. 2012;13:134–9.Google Scholar
- Sánchez-Moyano JE, García-Asencio I, Guerra-García JM. Littoral caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from the Mexican Central Pacific coast, with the description of four new species. J Nat Hist. 2014;49:77–127.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Scinto A, Bavestrello G, Boyer M, Previati M, Cerrano C. Gorgonian mortality related to a massive attack by carpellids in the Bunaken Marine Park (North Sulawesi, Indonesia). J Mar Biol Assoc UK. 2008;88(4):723–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shoemaker CR. Amphipoda crustaceans collected on the Presidential Cruise of 1938. In: Smithsonia Miscellaneous Collection. 1942. p. 1–52.Google Scholar
- Soler-Hurtado MM, Guerra-García JM. The caprellid Aciconula acanthosoma (Crustacea: Amphipoda) associated with gorgonians from Ecuador, Easter Pacific. Pac Sci. 2016;70(1):73–82.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Thiel M, Guerra-García JM, Lancellotti DA, Vásquez NE. The distribution of litoral caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidae) along the Pacific coast of continental Chile. Rev Chil Hist Nat. 2003;76:297–312.Google Scholar
- Woods CMC. Caprellid amphipods: An overlooked marine finfish aquaculture resource? Aquaculture. 2009;289:199–211.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wyrtki K. The annual and semiannual variation of sea surface temperature in the north Pacific Ocean. Limnol Oceanogr. 1965;10(3):307–13.View ArticleGoogle Scholar